Term 2 Science Project- How Can We Prevent Rusting?

Q&A:

Why don’t some metals rust?

Only metal’s containing iron  will rust. After all iron oxide is rust. For example, steel will rust because it contains iron. Whilst copper and bronze do not contain iron so they are not able to rust. Although those two materials can corrode.

Why does it take some things longer to rust than others?

It all depends on the materials that the metal contains and what it is submerged in or sprayed on with. If the metal contains iron and is submerged into water then the metal is going to rust faster. Although if it is sprayed on with water then the metal is going to take a longer time to rust. If the metal contains no iron (copper, bronze) then the metal is not going to rust at all.

Why do materials rust?

Materials rust when they come in contact with iron oxide and they contain iron. But, water is needed to give the oxygen in the iron oxide more support so that it can start to make the metal rust. The water is essential to the rusting process.

What does rust look like?

Most of the time rust will appear in a ragged shape, in a brownish sort of colour. It is very brittle and flaky, it is also very weak and soft so it is very easy to break. Although it is not malleable it can still be broken.

How can rust be prevented?

A plastic cover for the metal can be used to prevent rust. It will work because it will not give entry for any oxygen or water to penetrate the surface of the material. You could also galvanise the metal with a substance. You can do so by applying a zinc to the material, and since the zinc has a bigger reaction than the iron, the zinc will react rather than the iron in the metal.

 

 

Fair Test and Rusting Table

Independent Variable Dependent Variable Controlled Variable Control
The condition that is changed by the scientist. What you measure in response to the independent variable. The conditions are kept the same. The independent variable is left unchanged.
Experiment Name: How can we prevent rusting?
One of the steel bolts is covered in grease. Is grease the best way to prevent rusting. The amount of water in the beaker and the size, temperature and brand of metal. The water, its volume and its temperature. The bolt is left unchanged.

 

BTN-Brussel Sprouts

Most of us are not fans of brussel sprouts, but, some are. There are lots of different ways of cooking them and sometimes, they can be cooked in the wrong way.  But with the right ingredients added to it, they can taste delicious. When farming and harvesting brussel sprouts you need to water them, a lot. After you have watered them a lot, you harvest them, clean them, and pack them. Then they go off to be sold in the supermarkets. Brussel sprouts also have a lot of nutritional value such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C (more Vitamin C than oranges!), Vitamin K, Magnesium, Iron and fibre. The brussel sprout is said to be so nutritious, that when captain cook and his crew sailed out to sea, they ate them to stop them from getting ill. So the next time you look at a brussel sprout, have a try!

Brussel Sprout

 

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BTN-Brussel Sprouts

Gene Technology Access Centre (Lesson 2)

During the last couple of weeks our school has had the privelege of a few scientists  visiting to teach us about the states of matter. We have completed a wide range of activities involving scientific research and experimental events about the states of matter. These include acting out particles in a liquid and making predictions about what will happen to an object. I found these things the most interesting and surprising (not the above listed).

  • During the second lesson I learnt about how particles when they have pressure applied on them. I learnt that in gases, the atoms/particles are much more spread out. I also learnt that the gas particles  bounce off each other and the sides of the object that they are in. I discovered that solids, liquids and gases are all differently packed. Solid’s atoms are tightly packed, liquid’s atoms  are more loosely packed and gas’s atoms are very loosely packed.
  • Particles move differently when part of a different stated of matter. For example, solids have particles that don’t really move, liquids have particles that move around a bit, and gases have particles that move a lot.
  • What particles move like. I found this part of the lesson very interesting because I wasn’t that good at predicting how different particles would move. I learnt that particles in a solid move very slowly and don’t go anywhere, that particles in a liquid move a bit faster, and particles in a gas are very spread out and move really fast.

The next couple of things are the ideas that now understand.

  •  I now understand why people research and note take. I think that they do this so that they can create their own theories and understandings of scientific experiments.
  • I also now understand why scientists make questions . They do it so that they can answer them and get a better idea of a subject. They use the answers that they get to create their own unique understanding of the topic that they then use in reports and diagrams.

Here is my final piece of writing. It includes some different questions that I still have on this topic.

  • Where do scientists get their information from?
  • What happens if a scientist is trying to get a substance that is illegal or very dangerous?
  • Are there time frames for when scientists have to deliver reports by?

Letter (Draft)

Dear Greg Hunt,

It has come to my mind that global warming is a huge issue. Now, in past years I have been included in the green team environmentalist program at my school but have not been totally committed. But this year my thoughts and concerns have been quite significant in the way that I have been learning. During the start of this year I was informed about the actions that countries like us perform so that we can make products like furniture, computers and phones. I know that countries are doing their best to keep the environment as clean as they can but I know that the general public has to put the effort in as well. I believe that global warming is a big issue and needs a lot of effort to get rid of but with the help of the Australian Federal Government I think us as a country can achieve this goal. I know that the government might have larger and more important issues than this but I feel this is also a very important thing to be concerned about. So, to support my argument for helping the environment I wrote this letter to help you understand the consequences that occur if you let global warming get out of hand. I am also going to explain to you some of the things that you can do to solve this issue. So, here it is!

 

Global Warming affects the whole world, (hence the issue’s name) and can be very effective to human being’s lives. It is caused by pollution to the atmosphere and the environment. ‘Pollution’ includes things such as gas, coal and un-recycable goods. Gas is caused by driving cars and using electricity which is what most Australians do, and that’s another point I would like to touch on. I would like our country to lose the tag of ‘One of the biggest users of electricity per head’ and become ‘One of the smallest users of electricity per head’. I know this is a huge task but as I said before, together we can achieve our goals. As a past member of the green team environmentalist program I have encouraged my family and myself to recycle and reduce the amount of rubbish that my family disposes of. My mother is the president of the Parents Association at my school and this year for the Spring Fete she is organising more recycable products to be brought to the event. My mother is also trying to get some large recycling bins to put recycables into. I have also suggested to her that we should put up signs that say, ‘PLEASE RECYCLE ALL RECYCABLE GOODS’. So you can see by my explanation how much my family and I do care about the environment and the future of our environment as well.

 

Now onto my next point about the consequences that the world will face due to Global warming.Then, after that for my final point, I will give you some solutions that you can use to stop Global Warming. Some consequences of polluting the atmosphere are…

 

  • Climate Change
  • Dry/wet terrains
  • Less time out of your homes
  • Natural disasters

 

 

 

These are all terrible things and the public don’t want these events occurring..  So why don’t some people care for the environment? Well the answer to that is quite simple. People don’t know about the consequences of polluting the atmosphere that I just told you about. So what I think you should do as a government is broadcast an advertisement to talk about the consequences of global warming, and then, the public will hopefully start to be that little bit greener and respectful for the environment. Obviously, there is going to need a bit more effort displayed before the whole country (and eventually the world) is being as green as it can possibly be. But for now, I think that is a good start. Here I have some statistics for you to consider about the average amount of power consumed per head in some countries, including ours.

 

STATISTICS ON NEXT PAGE

gw1

 

 

So it just goes to show how much electricity our country uses compared to some of the other countries. Its unbelievable if you think about how much electricity and power is used by the whole entire country if only one person is using 1114 kilo watts per year! That’s a lot of pollution going into the atmosphere and I think most people of Australia would intend to change it. I know I would like to. I think that people should think about what they are doing now and what is going to happen in the future to the environment. Hopefully people will start to find solutions to fixing up the environment and then just maybe, maybe, everyone will follow. Here is a list of some of the things that you can do to prevent global warming and help to look after the environment.

 

  • Have a lesser amount of cars and a larger amount of public transport

 

  • Have more recycling bins around schools

 

  • Make sure that most houses have energy restriction programs underway

 

There are many more things that you can do to help the environment, as well as the ones listed above. As a student I don’t have the technology or the money to create an advertisement on the television or a billboard on the freeway, but I know you do. Please take this letter into consideration as I researched and used much of my prior knowledge to write it. I hope you care about the environment as much as I do.

gardening

 

 

BTN-Reconciliation Week

This week is Reconciliation week, and to celebrate it, a few schools around Australia are teaching students a language called Noongar. This is one of the traditional, indigenous languages that only some people speak. There have been many other languages that are native to Australia and have now died out, but these kids are trying to restore that culture. Many people who were native to Noongar actually did not speak the fluent language of the Noongar culture and that is the main reason why these kids are learning it. These children have been learning mostly through songwriting and singing but also some normal classroom sessions as well. Many people have identified this idea and are now encouraging it although others are a bit disappointed due to the fact that they know that there were many more indigenous Australian languages that have now been lost in past times.

Behind the News

 

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BTN-Reconciliation Week

Education Week-‘Scientists Do Amazing Things’

On the 21st of May, 2014, our class went to the Gene Technology Access Centre (GTAC) at The University High School. We had several days before this excursion where some of the scientists from the GTAC centre came in and taught us some things about science. We chose to go to GTAC this week because of the fact that it is education week and the theme is ‘Scientists Do Amazing Things’. We were at the GTAC Centre for the whole day and were split up into groups that we could work with. We learnt about how changing temperature can affect the state of a substance by using different tools during scientific experiments. We are now asked today to write a reflection about yesterday and this is what I came up with.

During the session I found a lot of interesting and surprising facts about the states of matter and how temperature can change them, but the most interesting fact that I found out was how people identify and clean up infected water (eg. Algael blooms, ocean water etc). I saw how people filter and create drinkable water and what tools they use to do so. I discovered that lots of machinery and effort is used and put in, to make water that we can drink. Lots of things that I learnt at GTAC were very new to me and often surprised me when I learnt them. I look forward to going there in the future and learning even more about science and where we use it.

From the day I understand a lot of things. Like, why algae can be such a bad thing and how hard it is to clean up oil when dumped in the ocean. But the most important understanding that I now have of this subject is why oil can be such a bad thing. I know that oil can be extremely valuable but it can be a big obstacle for those creatures that live in the ocean. I understand that its really hard to get out of, especially when you have feathers. I know this because during one of the science experiments we had to predict and observe what happened when a feather got tangled in a pool of oil. What happened was that the oil was so sticky and heavy that the feather got stuck and didn’t come out of the water. We talked about what would happen if you had several feathers and decided that the feathers would stick together and be heavy enough to way down the bird so that it would sink and die.

After the session I had several wonderings such as…

Why don’t people drink chlorine, since the water that we drink is partially purified by chlorine? One answer that I think I have to this question is chemicals. I believe that chemicals inside the chlorine are toxic and very dangerous which can cause death. But I still don’t know why we use chlorine to filter and clean our water. Maybe because we use a small amount of chlorine in it?

 

Gene Technology Access Center-Incursion Reflection (Lesson 1)

On Tuesday the 6th of May,2014, a few scientists visited our school. These people came from the Gene Technology Access Centre (GTAC) at Uni High. Chris and Maria (GTAC scientists) taught us about the different atoms inside the states of matter. We were involved in lots of different challenges that were based around scientific research throughout the session and were very fun to be a part of. The whole lesson was based around what the states of matter consist of (eg. atoms and particles) and how to identify if an object is a solid, liquid or gas. The lesson mainly focused on solids and liquids rather than gas but some of the session was about gas.

Chris and Maris are scientists. Chris works in the biological unit whereas Maria works in the biotechnology unit. Most of the lesson was run by Chris although Maris helped us with some clarifications of different  words. The majority of the lesson was a discussion but there were a few challenges/activities as well. The first few challenges consisted of planning a way of transporting a piece of play-dough from one side of the room to the other inside a small, plastic cup (the activities were done in groups). I think that this exercise was used as a warm up for what lay ahead. The 2nd exercise. This one included the following contents:

  • A polystyrene bowl
  • A plastic cup
  • A large plastic beaker

The method in which we had to use the contents was to put the polystyrene bowl into the plastic cup and transfer it in to the large beaker on the opposite table. Our group came up with a method of our own. Our method was to smash the polystyrene bowl and put it into the cup. This method was surprisingly successful and we were thankful that it was.

The next challenge we faced was to find out and make an opinion on why atoms in a solid are more tightly packed than any of the other states of matter. Some of the information that we were to,d by Chris and Maria was already known to us but there was some new stuff as well. We discussed our opinions and than moved on to the hands on challenge. The contents included one piece of rope and a group of students. What we did was represent the atoms in a liquid. How we did it, was another thing. We did it by jumping inside of a rope and getting into the shape if a cup to represent a cup of water. We then discussed the movements of the water and how fast it moves as well. After that we did a similar activity except we represented maple syrup, and this time we moved much slower. Then we headed back to our tables for another bit of new information.

Chris and Maria were talking about why maple syrup does what it does and then asked me and another member of the class to come up the front. What my fellow classmate and I had to do was hold a small vile of water over a glass beaker and let it run down, but my classmate didn’t have water, she had maple syrup! So obviously her liquid was less free flowing than mine. This was due to the fact that the maple syrup had low viscosity whilst the water had a much higher level of viscosity.

So overall I learnt a lot about chemical and physical change and how to apply them to the states of matter, and also what materials some objects are made out of. I learnt about the atoms and how they can be affected and a lot of new scientific terms such as viscosity and malleable.

GTAC Lesson 1

Science Prac Report-Packing Pellets

20 May 2014                                                  Partner: None          Immersing Packing Pellets    

Aim:

To find out what will happen when you place a packing pellet inside a glass beaker filled with room temperature water.

Materials:

  • Packing Pellets
  • Small beaker
  • Room temperature water.

Procedure:

Place a packing pellet inside the room temperature water. See what happens!

Hypothesis:

I predict/hypothesize that the packing pellet will dissolve when placed in the room temperature water.

Results:

The packing pellet was dissolving! The water molecules got into the packing pellet and slowly started to dissolve it!

pp1

 

Before

 

pp2

After

 

Conclusion:

The packing pellet floated and eventually started to dissolve, so, my hypothesis was partially right. I wonder what would happen if the water temperature was higher than the room temperature?